Through struggle and growth, women could reach the highest human achievement: “self-actualization,” a term Freidan borrowed from mid-century psychologist Abraham Maslow, whom she interviewed extensively for The Feminine Mystique. Friedan’s feminism emphasized career-oriented independence for women and men instead of domestic life. All of this was accomplished so that women could, as the 1966 NOW manifesto read, have “full participation in the mainstream of American society” and “develop their fullest human potential.”REF Companies would soon have to take affirmative action to secure a sufficient number of women to ensure immunity from charges of discrimination. The third wave, beginning in the 1990s, refers to a continuation of, and a reaction to, second-wave feminism. She described the unequal treatment of women as "the problem that has no name". Over time, feminist activists have campaigned for issues such as women’s legal rights, especially in regard to contracts, property, and voting; body integrity and autonomy; abortion and reproductive rights, including contraception and prenatal care; protection from domestic violence, sexual harassment, and rape; workplace rights, including maternity leave and equal pay; and against all forms of discrimination women encounter. casada con un señor y madre de tres hijes, contrató a una nanny para poderse ir a la Biblioteca Pública de Nueva York a escribir tranquila su libro. She graduated from Smith summa cum laude in 1942. The question of the place of women in society seems to be settled: Women can and should be everywhere in society that men are and in the same numbers as men. Dicho de otro modo, el feminismo de las Bettys. . The 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibited racial and sexual discrimination in employment and in public accommodations such as restaurants or hotels. The emphasis that some feminists placed on sex skewed priorities. Betty Naomi Goldstein conocida mundialmente como Betty Friedan es una de las mujeres más importantes en la Historia del Feminismo. Friedan remained a leading voice on women’s issues throughout the 1970s and 1980s, moving from activist to reflective elder during these times. Qué paradójico que mientras las Amelias te leen feminista primordial que marcó un antes y un después, yo sólo veo, como veo en el feminismo del poder actual que lideran las biovaginas de los partidos (da igual el color de la ficha en el tablero de parchís), la prótesis sustitutiva que impide el cambio verdaderamente transformador; yo sólo veo más equivocación feminista y palos en la rueda. Education should instead be gender-neutral and treat boys and girls the same. She denied that its radicalism was traceable to her ideas. “Without child care,” Friedan learned from Swedish feminists, “it’s all just talk.” In 1967, NOW demanded “paid maternity leave, federally mandated child care facilities, and a tax deduction for home and child care expenses for working parents.”REF Such programs would free women from the burdens of motherhood so that they could pursue creative work outside the home and would inaugurate a society where both women and men could devote themselves to careers. Third-wave feminism began in the early 1990s, responding to perceived failures of the second wave and to the backlash against second-wave initiatives. For Friedan, a fully chosen, self-made identity is the key to human happiness. Indeed, feminism’s influence is so pervasive and successful that its impact is almost universally taken for granted. ¿No sabías que sin la nanny no habrías escrito ni una sola línea, Betty? tenemos aún mucho que pensar y dar que pensar para salir del lugar del no-reconocimiento, de la no-reciprocidad, por tanto, de la violencia”. Betty Friedan (/ ˈ f r iː d ən, f r iː ˈ d æ n, f r ɪ-/ February 4, 1921 – February 4, 2006) was an American feminist writer and activist. Under this scheme, women could still marry and raise children as long as these domestic concerns were subordinated to their careers. Buscan mejorar el estilo de vida de las mujeres centrándose en temas del ámbito personal, comienza el feminismo liberal. Friedan later worried that radical feminists were taking her principles too far, but she could not resist the movement’s direction. Quién era esa nanny, cómo se llamaba, dónde o cómo vivía, qué edad u origen tenía, no lo sabemos. Friedan saw her layoff as an instance of sex discrimination.REF Emily, her only daughter, followed a few years later. The future of our civilization, for Friedan, depended on women choosing this career-focused way of life. On the sexual revolution, Friedan argued for legalizing contraception and abortion. Older, “first wave” feminists argued for the extension of basic rights to women, such as the right to own property, the right to vote, and the end of marital coverture—a legal term meaning government recognition of wives under the “cover” of their husbands. Betty Friedan was one of the founders of the National Organization for Women. In her book, she describes a woman's life in the 1950's as completely centred around being a mother and housewife. The real enemy is women's denigration of themselves.". La Tercera Ola feminista, iniciada en los años sesenta del siglo XX, parte de dos obras fundamentales, El segundo sexo de Simone de Beauvoir y La mística de la femineidad, de la estadounidense Betty Friedan. The ideal life as mother and wife toward which women had been educated was debilitating and false, Friedan argued, and women who lived such a life were not really happy or fulfilled, no matter what they thought. Por eso, Betty, te pareció «irrelevante» plantear «el movimiento de mujeres en términos de clase ni de raza.». Cuando Betty concluye al final: «No podía definir la liberación para las mujeres en términos que negaran (…) nuestra necesidad de amar a un hombre, e incluso a veces de depender de él. Divorce. Such a life, Friedan argued, was incompatible with genuine female contentment. Fue una teórica y líder del movimiento feminista estadounidense de los años 60 y 70. In each of these cases and in many others, NOW gained the EEOC’s attention, and companies were required to change their practices under threat of legal penalty. NOW won notable victories for feminism, including the decriminalization of abortion and gaining the enforcement of sex discrimination laws. By the late 19th century, feminist activism was primarily focused on the right to vote. Finally, Friedan never seems to have regretted her denigrating view that women of the past wanted nothing more out of life than merely being mothers and wives. 2015-16 Visiting Fellow in American Political Thought. Her first child, Daniel, was born in 1948. En 1963 escribió el ensayo Mística de la feminidad, en el que critica el rol femenino en la sociedad contemporánea, ya que provoca numerosas formas de … Betty Naomi Goldstein was born in February 1921 in Peoria, Illinois, the quintessential middle-America town. Friedan helped to spearhead NOW’s efforts to eliminate legal prohibitions on access to contraception and abortion and was active more broadly in promoting the sexual revolution. Her memoir, Life So Far (2000), was her last published book. Education aimed at encouraging girls to be mothers and wives was part of the feminine mystique and hence created a false, debilitating identity for women raised under it. The first wave, occurring in the 19th and early 20th century, was mainly concerned with women’s right to vote. Today’s women, for the first time, were restless, bored, and unfulfilled, even though they were living comfortable lives as involved mothers and wives amid great prosperity. Betty Friedan wrote the book "The Feminine Mystique" which ignited the contemporary women's movement in 1963. Así pues, ¿desde dónde, para quién y de quiénes habla la Mística en sus casi 500 páginas? The term feminism describes political, cultural, and economic movements that aim to establish equal rights and legal protections for women. Maternity could be a part of a life well lived. La raíz del problema el patriarcado, el sistema de dominación del hombre sobre la mujer, que se produce en todos los ámbitos de la vida: familiar, política, económica, social, científica. Friedan headed to the University of California–Berkeley on a psychology fellowship. Old divorce laws required that either spouse prove fault and that women who had dedicated themselves to the family during marriage receive alimony payments to support them after the divorce. El caso es que la autora, (¿felizmente?) Como uno de los miembros más prominentes del movimiento feminista americano, Betty Friedan, autora de La Mística Femenina, dejó una huella indeleble en la sociedad y en la lucha por la igualdad entre hombres y mujeres. Betty Friedan launched modern feminism, arguably the most influential and successful intellectual movement of the 20th century. Divorcing Carl Friedan in 1969 during this season of activism, Friedan claimed that her husband was jealous of her notoriety and that he beat her. Women would follow this new life plan if society paved the way for it. She fought through this discrimination and started a literary journal in her high school. It explains why her radical principles were more influential and lasting than her moderation. “No woman should be authorized to stay at home to raise her children,” Beauvoir contended, for fear that too many women would choose to do so. This new path would encourage women to struggle for the first time and hence be free to build an identity for themselves. "A woman is handicapped by her sex, and handicaps society, either by slavishly copying the pattern of man's advance in the professions, or by refusing to compete with man at all. ir a una reestructuración del pensamiento en lo que tiene que ver con los cuidados familiares, compartir las responsabilidades familiares”. Women need the courage to pursue their purported need for independence instead of living family lives as dependents or loving mothers or heeding the calls of nature to reproduce. Under Friedan’s leadership, NOW set out to change that. Feminismo, género, y «perspectiva de género» no son equivalentes, aunque en muchas ocasiones se les quiera presentar como sinónimos. Betty Friedan was a key player in second-wave feminism. Her work begins with a dismissal of the previous understanding of womanhood. “The only kind of work which permits” a woman “to realize her abilities fully, to achieve identity in society,” Friedan wrote, is “the lifelong commitment to an art or science, to politics or profession.”REF Educators, psychologists, and others in the learned professions would adopt this vision in the future and encourage women to conform to it in the name of freedom. El lema “lo personal es político” explica los primeros años de esta Tercera Ola. They raised children to lives of virtue, faith, and honesty; made beautiful homes; and generally put familial concerns at the center of their lives. Betty Friedan (4 de febrero de 1921 – 4 de febrero de 2006). Friedan was raised a secular Jew. Those on the way to forming healthy identities engage in projects that serve mankind, make the world a better place through social reform, and lose themselves in careers that they find meaningful and rewarding and that call forth all of their capacities.REF Careers held this promise for Friedan, not the home or a family. Disparities between the sexes could always plausibly be traced to the lingering effects of the feminine mystique, so feminists would have to be vigilant, persistent, and nimble in pursuing their revolution. Feminist history can be divided into three waves. “Admiro a las mujeres que se cuidan a ellas mismas, innovan su vida y su entorno y son sabias por la experiencia, por su capacidad de aprender de otras mujeres, y también por el aprendizaje ilustrado”, “El feminismo ha sido y es esa suma de acciones contra corriente, rebeldías y afirmaciones, que tantas mujeres han hecho y hacen sin tener para nada la conciencia de ser feministas. En los hogares existe la misma relación de poder del hombre hacia las mujeres que en la calle. No es de recibo que escribas un tocho sobre las angustias y depresiones que supuso el trabajo minusvalorado e invisibilizado de las amas de casa, poniendo de manifiesto el ninguneamiento y el lavado de tarro que soportan los cuidados, y te dejes fuera del análisis a tu nanny. She helped found the National Organization for Women (NOW) in 1966 and was its first president. Investing great hope in a job while pointing people away from deep obligations in family life compromises the joy and contentment of most people. They had won women the legal right to own property and to vote. Estaba revisando unas notas de cuando leí «Malditas, una estirpe transfeminista» de Itziar Ziga cuando me volví a encontrar con esto de «Yo no soy hija de Betty Friedan», y me picó la curiosidad: ¿qué decía Betty en una de las que es considerada (miles de comillas) una de las obras fundamentales del feminismo que pudiera cabrear tanto a Itziar hasta el punto de repudiarla como madre simbólica y despreciar su legado feminista? Feminist education intentionally puts a thumb on the scale away from family life and toward careers. Las mujeres toman cada vez más conciencia de ello y surge una nueva corriente feminista que quiere cambiar esta situación: el Feminismo Radical. After publishing The Feminine Mystique, one of the best-selling books of the 1960s, Betty Friedan led a life of political action on behalf of feminism that led to a reformation of American laws and culture. Las feministas de la tercera ola reivindican la despenalización del aborto y trabajan en la legislación y las Políticas de Igualdad de género. Betty Friedan launched modern feminism, arguably the most influential and successful intellectual movement of the 20th century. “Las mujeres While writing for the union in the late 1940s, Betty met and married Carl Friedan, a theater producer from New York. El feminismo en singular es, y sigue siendo así en nuestros días, un feminismo hegemónico, privilegiado, cisheterosexual, que vive en los barrios residenciales blancos de la clase media acomodada de cualquier país occidental. He denied both charges, suggesting that she was not an easy woman to get along with.REF, The women’s movement became increasingly radical in the 1970s. El prólogo de Amelia Valcárcel, efectivamente, no hace presagiar nada bueno. Create your own unique website with customizable templates. The third-wave sees women’s lives as intersectional, demonstrating how race, ethnicity, class, religion, gender, and nationality are all significant factors when discussing feminism. Yet despite later worries and qualifications, Friedan’s initial ideas remained more influential than her change of heart. Gender-Neutral Society. It is an education toward genuinely important human experiences. At that time, she had a “romantic vision of communism” and thought of herself “as a revolutionary.” She “wanted to become a member” of the Communist Party, but she did not take the action necessary to join since she never felt that she was in “community with the actual communists she was living with.”REF She adopted much of the communist critique of capitalism, including the idea that the American principles of “democracy, civil liberties and freedoms of conscience and speech” were just “a capitalist mask for oppression” and the view that wars were caused by munitions manufacturers out to make a profit.REF. women will still be oppressed.” In order for women to be free, the family would also have to be abolished: Either the law would proscribe families from forming or families would be viewed so shamefully in public opinion that people would not marry.REF, Friedan stopped short of endorsing Beauvoir’s proposal to require the separation of mothers from their children. Friedan helped to write NOW’s charter and contributed to its lobbying efforts to get the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to take action against sex discrimination. In Friedan, a moment of female promise and frustration met its poet. The ideal life as mother and wife toward which women had been educated was debilitating and false, Friedan argued, and women who lived such a life were not really happy or fulfilled, no matter what they thought. No tengo espacio en este artículo para desarrollar lo tremendamente mal que ha envejecido La mística de la feminidad (1963), para poder señalar y analizar como me gustaría la misoginia que sobrevuela estas páginas, la homofobia, la lesbofobia, la sexofobia, los sinsentidos, la eterna culpa que señala a las madres, mientras la ausencia o violenta presencia de los padres en los hogares no ocupan líneas ni responsabilidad alguna en el pensamiento de nuestra gran feminista Betty. 'Disidencias de género' es un blog coordinado por Lucía Barbudo y Elisa Reche en el que se reivindica la diversidad de puntos de vista feministas y del colectivo LGTBQI. Betty Friedan y los grandes tochos del feminismo blanco. ', This suffering, she believed, endangered women and the future of Western civilization. As the women’s movement succeeded, Friedan objected to its excesses. En los años setenta planteó diversas luchas para la aprobación de las leyes sobre el aborto, el trabajo femenino y sobre los derechos de las mujeres en general. Betty Friedan wrote the book "The Feminine Mystique" which ignited the contemporary women's movement in 1963. He was a Visiting Fellow in the B. Kenneth Simon Center for Principles and Politics from 2016–2017 and is the author of Family Politics: The Idea of Marriage in Modern Political Thought (Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2011). NOW also called for opening up the priesthood to women and the removal of sex segregation in religious organizations and church-sponsored schools in the hope that private organizations could be pressured to abandon their commitment to the feminine mystique. Las feministas liberales buscan la igualdad de derechos de la mujer frente al hombre, mientras que las feministas radicales van más allá y quieren romper el sistema patriarcal en el que vivimos. First-wave feminism promoted equal contract and property rights for women, opposing ownership of married women by their husbands. Varias mujeres se organizan para llevar a cabo grandes protestas públicas y para crear espacios propios como centros de mujeres maltratadas, ginecológicos, guarderías y de defensa personal, entre otros. Feminist education intentionally puts a thumb on the scale away from family life and toward careers. Esto es, tales acciones se realizan sin la conciencia de una voluntad común». She believed that women were being held back from their full potential because they were limited to only a number of jobs that were "acceptable" for women. Nació el 4 de Febrero de 1921 en Peoria, Illinois y murió a los 85 años el 4 de febrero de 2006 en Washington D.C, hace hoy 10 años. “The core of the problem for women,” she wrote, is a “problem of identity—a stunting or evasion of growth that is perpetuated by the feminine mystique.”REF Friedan wanted each woman to solve her own “identity crisis” by finding “the work, or the cause, or the purpose that evokes…creativity.”REF Creative work fosters genuine struggle, and such struggle fosters personal growth. The education she recommends, however, is meant to shape choice in a particular direction. The feminine mystique survived and returned: Women still “grew up under conditions” that made them “inferior to men, dependent, passive, incapable of thought or decision.”REF Winning rights was necessary for women to progress further, but only a deeper revolution could disrupt the feminine mystique’s hold on the minds of women. Fue una teórica y líder del movimiento feminista estadounidense de los años 60 y 70. She worried that “politically at the moment” it would be impossible to force women away from motherhood because “we have hardly any child-care centers in the United States.” Beauvoir’s proposal to force women away from motherhood also ran afoul of the “tradition of individual freedom in America.” As Friedan concluded, “I would never say that every woman must put her child in a child-care center.”REF, Friedan went further in her criticism of Beauvoir, contending that investing time and energy into motherhood could be a desirable choice as long as doing so did not come at the expense of a satisfying career. A new kind of woman—one fulfilled by genuinely rewarding, independent, creative work outside the home—could emerge, she believed, if there was a new kind of education founded on her own teaching. I suppose you have to say that freedom of sexual choice was part of that, but it should not be the main issue, the tail that wags the dog.”REF Lesbians—whom she called the Lavender Menace—were, Friedan worried, taking over the women’s movement and alienating most women. Te necesitamos más que nunca. This ideology seeks to challenge the definitions of femininity that grew out of the ideas of the second-wave, arguing that the second-wave over-emphasized experiences of upper middle-class white women. Indeed, feminism’s influence is … However, her initial principles paved the way for a more radical feminism that went beyond her thought. Her late-life moderation should have moved her to conclude that the “feminine mystique” itself was more than a myth. Women practiced sacrificial love and care for others instead of going out into the world and competing. En 1966, Betty Friedan pasó a la acción y creó la Organización Nacional de Mujeres (NOW), llegando a ser la organización feminista más influyente y sin duda Friedan la máxima representante del feminismo … Si te gusta nuestro trabajo, apóyanos tú también. Friedan also disagreed with radical feminists on deeper grounds. Many of the long-range changes she sought have come to pass. She gave the women’s movement a particular flavor, for good and for ill. Later in life, Friedan came to have reservations about the radical turn in feminism. In 1963, her book The Feminine Mystique criticized the idea that women could find fulfillment only through childrearing and homemaking. According to Friedan’s New York Times obituary, her book “ignited the contemporary women’s movement in 1963 and as a result permanently transformed the social fabric of the United States and countries around the world” and “is widely regarded as one of the most influential nonfiction books of the 20th century.” Friedan hypothesizes that women are victims of false beliefs requiring them to find identity in their lives through husbands and children. As a Jew, she was excluded from the local country club and other “respectable” school activities. NOW set up a task force on education that called for public instruction in family planning, the elimination of sex-specific school curricula, and the integration of student facilities such as dormitories on college campuses.REF These institutions were based on the assumption that boys and girls had different needs and personalities and thus, NOW argued, formed the basis for male privilege and exclusivity. In her book, she describes a woman's life in the 1950's as completely centred around being a mother and housewife. Her mother encouraged her to attend Smith College after high school in 1938. This raised several difficulties. Ni el mismo Sigmund Fraude pudo dilucidar en treinta años de devanarse los sesos («Sigo sin comprender qué quieren las mujeres», ánimo con eso Sigmund), que el malestar que no tiene nombre esta(ba) en la estafa de asumir la mística del capitalismo (palabra que por cierto no aparece ni una sola vez en el análisis de Betty), el matrimonio de obligado régimen heterosexual y la maternidad concentracionaria. This causes women to lose their own identities in that of their family. 1997 - The Feminine Mystique inspired the women’s movement to advocate for a more independent, liberationist woman. El feminismo, ese que se nombra a sí mismo en singular, se empeña (craso error) en hacer del género la única violencia, y es el responsable, desde mi punto de vista, de la errónea y terrible conclusión política de que el feminismo es cosa de mujeres. Her Feminine Mystique aimed to expose previous generations of women as unwittingly guided by a “mystique” or a set of myths that drew them to motherhood and domestic life. As Friedan famously warned, “Women who ‘adjust’ as housewives, who grow up wanting to be ‘just a housewife,’ are in as much danger as the millions who walked to their own death in the concentration camps—and the millions more who refused to believe that the concentration camps existed.”REF. Among her other accomplishments, Friedan was the founder and first president of the National Organization for Women (NOW). Betty Friedan nacida como Betty Naomi Goldstein (Peoria, Illinois, 4 de febrero de 1921 – Washington D. C., 4 de febrero de 2006) fue una teórica y líder feminista estadounidense de las décadas de 1960 y 1970. . Friedan wrote an article about the survey, but no women’s magazine would publish it for fear (as she tells the story) that it would contradict the then-prevailing image of womanly contentment.REF Eventually, these ideas led her in 1963 to write The Feminine Mystique, which sold 1.4 million copies in its first paperback printing.REF. Her career, begun with a critique of the feminine mystique, was based at best on a partial truth. Friedan argued for such a society as president of NOW, as an abortion rights activist, and as a prominent activist/intellectual. Equally important to Friedan was the ending of sex discrimination in employment and higher education. (…) El poder político no significa que dejes de necesitar amar y ser amada por un hombre, o que te dejen de importar tus critaturas», tengo claro que no estamos ante un texto revolucionario sino algo meramente reformista. Contraception, for Friedan, allowed women “to take control of their bodies” and “define themselves by their contribution to society, not just in terms of their reproductive role.”REF She joined forces with others in a coalition of abortion activists called the National Association for the Repeal of Abortion Laws.REF Friedan thought the right to abortion was “a final essential right of full personhood.”REF “Motherhood is a bane almost by definition,” she argued at a 1969 abortion convention. Betty Friedan (4 de febrero de 1921 – 4 de febrero de 2006). 2020 Mujeres en Red. Se organizan social y profesionalmente como feministas y como lobbies. Betty Friedan organiza junto con otras mujeres NOW (National Organization for Women), el mayor movimiento de mujeres conocido hasta entonces y que ha ido creciendo hasta la actualidad. They were romantically and sexually passive, allowing men to take the initiative. Ya no quieren estar en casa. Así se se titula el capítulo primero del libro "La mística de la feminidad" publicado en EEUU en 1963 que ganó el premio Pulitzer en (...), Ha muerto el día de su cumpleaños. Y no lo sabemos porque no aparece en los agradecimientos (en los que la autora bien se ha esmerado con el chorro de nombres en no dejar a nadie fuera). ¡Cuánta arrogancia blanca incluida en una sola frase! Hazte socio, hazte socia. Sex Discrimination. Así es cómo feminismo radical consigue que las mujeres del siglo XX vayan cambiando el día a día de sus vidas. A leading figure in the women's movement in the United States, her 1963 book The Feminine Mystique is often credited with sparking the second wave of American feminism in the 20th century. El feminismo liberal describe la situación de las mujeres como una desigualdad, no como una explotación u opresión. El periódico feminista, Ha muerto Betty Friedan, una de las fundadoras del feminismo. Later in life, Friedan regretted how far her radical sisters took the principles of her Feminine Mystique. Fue una mujer valiente, luchadora y reivindicativa.… En 1963 escribió el ensayo Mística de la feminidad, en el que critica el rol femenino en la sociedad contemporánea, ya que provoca numerosas formas de alienación. Betty Friedan, una socióloga que escribe sobre la mística de la feminidad, pone nombre al problema que no tiene nombre, explica que estas mujeres viven insatisfechas en este aparente mundo maravilloso pero sienten que están priorizando el cuidado de otros a sus propios deseos. Friedan, by contrast, sought at-will, “no fault” divorce, where either party would be able to leave a marriage at any time. El 4 de febrero. She died on February 4, 2006, in Washington, D.C., on her 85th birthday. Su libro "La mística femenina" se convirtió en uno de los más vendidos en la década de los (...). Los documentos de investigación sobre Betty Friedan y discutir la vida y la carrera de uno de los miembros más prominentes del movimiento feminista americano. La mayoría viven deprimidas y con ansiedad. All are pointed to fulfillment through careers. Although they “destroyed the old image of woman,” they still “could not paint the new image of what woman might become,” because the feminine mystique was so powerful. She believed that women were being held back from their full potential because they were … Contraception and Abortion. Girls should not be prepared for motherhood, family life, or keeping house, and boys should not be prepared to be fathers and providers. She served four years before stepping down in 1970. Pero volvamos a Betty Friedan y a su feminismo en singular, ese feminismo que parece que ella piensa sola, como cabe interpretar de sus palabras dichas en la Introducción a la edición del décimo aniversario, Nueva York (1973): Da miedo cuando abres un nuevo camino que nadie ha pisado antes que tú. En los años 60 se empiezan a conseguir derechos fundamentales para las mujeres, se ocupan puestos de responsabilidad y poder pero en el ámbito privado sigue habiendo desigualdad, malos tratos, sigue sin haber reparto en las tareas y hay explotación económica. Lo que de interesante tiene el tocho de la Betty es cómo documenta pormenorizadamente aquello que se considera(ba) «esencialmente femenino», que la tan ansiada y prometida felicidad femenina que se suponía se alcanzaba con la casa perfecta, el maridito y les hijes, no eran sino cepos patriarcal y estratégicamente bien plantados. She discovered that many of her classmates had grown frustrated with their lives as mothers and regretted giving up career ambitions or ending their education.
betty friedan feminismo